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Evolution and the Church
The Christian picture of the world is this, that the world in its
details is the product of a long process of evolution but that at
the most profound level it comes from the Logos. Thus it
carries rationality within itself.
+ Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger (Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI), God
and the World: A Conversation With Peter Seewald, May 27,
Ultimately it comes down to the alternative: What came first?
Creative Reason, the Creator Spirit who makes all things and
gives them growth, or Unreason, which, lacking any meaning,
strangely enough brings forth a mathematically ordered
cosmos, as well as man and his reason. The latter, however,
would then be nothing more than a chance result of evolution
and thus, in the end, equally meaningless. As Christians, we say: I believe in God the Father, the Creator of
heaven and earth. I believe in the Creator Spirit. We believe that at the beginning of everything is the eternal
Word, with Reason and not Unreason.
+ Pope Benedict XVI, in the book Creation and Evolution: A Conference With Pope Benedict XVI in Castel
Evolution and the Conception of Man
By Pope John Paul II
Message to Pontifical Academy of Sciences*
October 22, 1996
"Fresh knowledge has led to the recognition that evolution is more than a hypothesis."
To the Members of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences taking part in the Plenary Assembly,
With great pleasure I address cordial greetings to you, Mr. President, and to all of you who constitute the Pontifical
Academy of Sciences, on the occasion of your plenary assembly. I offer my best wishes in particular to the new
academicians, who have come to take part in your work for the first time. I would also like to remember the
academicians who died during the past year, whom I commend to the Lord of life.
1. In celebrating the 60th anniversary of the Academy's refoundation, I would like to recall the intentions of my
predecessor Pius XI, who wished to surround himself with a select group of scholars, relying on them to inform the
Holy See in complete freedom about developments in scientific research, and thereby to assist him in his
He asked those whom he called the Church's Senatus scientificus to serve the truth. I again extend this same
invitation to you today, certain that we will all be able to profit from the fruitfulness of a trustful dialogue between
the Church and science (cf. Address to the Academy of Sciences, n. 1, 28 October 1986, L'Osservatore Romano
English edition, 24 November 1986, p. 22).
Science at the dawn of the third millennium
2. I am pleased with the first theme you have chosen, that of the origins of life and evolution, an essential subject
which deeply interests the Church, since Revelation, for its part, contains teaching concerning the nature and
origins of man. How do the conclusions reached by the various scientific disciplines coincide with those contained
in the message of Revelation? And if, at first sight, there are apparent contradictions, in what direction do we look
for their solution? We know, in fact, that truth cannot contradict truth (cf. Leo XIII, Encyclical Providentissimus
Deus). Moreover, to shed greater light on historical truth, your research on the Church's relations with science
between the 16th and 18th centuries is of great importance.
During this plenary session, you are undertaking a "reflection on science at the dawn of the third millennium",
starting with the identification of the principal problems created by the sciences and which affect humanity's
future. With this step you point the way to solutions which will be beneficial to the whole human community. In
the domain of inanimate and animate nature, the evolution of science and its applications gives rise to new
questions. The better the Church's knowledge is of their essential aspects, the more she will understand their
impact. Consequently, in accordance with her specific mission she will be able to offer criteria for discerning the
moral conduct required of all human beings in view of their integral salvation.
3. Before offering you several reflections that more specifically concern the subject of the origin of life and its
evolution, I would like to remind you that the Magisterium of the Church has already made pronouncements on
these matters within the framework of her own competence. I will cite here two interventions.
In his Encyclical Humani generis (1950), my predecessor Pius XII had already stated that there was no opposition
between evolution and the doctrine of the faith about man and his vocation, on condition that one did not lose
sight of several indisputable points (cf. AAS 42 , pp. 575-576).
For my part, when I received those taking part in your Academy's plenary assembly on 31 October 1992, I had
the opportunity, with regard to Galileo, to draw attention to the need of a rigorous hermeneutic for the correct
interpretation of the inspired word. It is necessary to determine the proper sense of Scripture, while avoiding any
unwarranted interpretations that make it say what it does not intend to say. In order to delineate the field of their
own study, the exegete and the theologian must keep informed about the results achieved by the natural sciences
(cf. AAS 85  pp. 764-772; Address to the Pontifical Biblical Commission, 23 April 1993, announcing the
document on The interpretation of the Bible in the Church: AAS 86  pp. 232-243).
Evolution and the Church's Magisterium
4. Taking into account the state of scientific research at the time as well as of the requirements of theology, the
Encyclical Humani generis considered the doctrine of "evolutionism" a serious hypothesis, worthy of investigation
and in-depth study equal to that of the opposing hypothesis. Pius XII added two methodological conditions: that
this opinion should not be adopted as though it were a certain, proven doctrine and as though one could totally
prescind from Revelation with regard to the questions it raises. He also spelled out the condition on which this
opinion would be compatible with the Christian faith, a point to which I will return.
Today, almost half a century after the publication of the Encyclical, fresh knowledge has led to the recognition that
evolution is more than a hypothesis. It is indeed remarkable that this theory has been progressively accepted by
researchers, following a series of discoveries in various fields of knowledge. The convergence, neither sought nor
fabricated, of the results of work that was conducted independently is in itself a significant argument in favor of
What is the significance of such a theory? To address this question is to enter the field of epistemology. A theory is
a metascientific elaboration, distinct from the results of observation but consistent with them. By means of it a
series of independent data and facts can be related and interpreted in a unified explanation. A theory's validity
depends on whether or not it can be verified, it is constantly tested against the facts; wherever it can no longer
explain the latter, it shows its limitations and unsuitability. It must then be rethought.
Furthermore, while the formulation of a theory like that of evolution complies with the need for consistency with
the observed data, it borrows certain notions from natural philosophy. And, to tell the truth, rather than the theory
of evolution, we should speak of several theories of evolution. On the one hand, this plurality has to do with the
different explanations advanced for the mechanism of evolution, and on the other, with the various philosophies
on which it is based. Hence the existence of materialist, reductionist and spiritualist interpretations. What is to be
decided here is the true role of philosophy and, beyond it, of theology.
5. The Church's Magisterium is directly concerned with the question of evolution, for it involves the conception of
man: Revelation teaches us that he was created in the image and likeness of God (cf. Gn 1:27-29). The conciliar
Constitution Gaudium et spes has magnificently explained this doctrine, which is pivotal to Christian thought. It
recalled that man is :the only creature on earth that God has wanted for its own sake" (n. 24). In other terms, the
human individual cannot be subordinated as a pure means or a pure instrument, either to the species or to
society, he has value per se. He is a person. With his intellect and his will, he is capable of forming a relationship
of communion, solidarity and self-giving with his peers. St Thomas observes that man's likeness to God resides
especially in his speculative intellect for his relationship with the object of his knowledge resembles God's
relationship with what he has created (Summa Theologica, I-II, q. 3, a. 5, ad 1). But even more, man is called to
enter into a relationship of knowledge and love with God himself, a relationship which will find its complete
fulfillment beyond time, in eternity. All the depth and grandeur of this vocation are revealed to us in the mystery
of the risen Christ (cf. Gaudium et spes, n. 22). It is by virtue of his spiritual soul that the whole person possesses
such a dignity even in his body. Pius XII stressed this essential point: if the human body takes its origin from pre-
existent living matter the spiritual soul is immediately created by God ("animal enim a Deo immediate creari
catholica fides nos retinere inhet"; Encyclical Humani generic, AAS 42 , p. 575).
Consequently, theories of evolution which, in accordance with the philosophies inspiring them, consider the mind
as emerging from the forces of living matter, or as a mere epiphenomenon of this matter, are incompatible with
the truth about man. Nor are they able to ground the dignity of the person.
6. With man, then, we find ourselves in the presence of an ontological difference, an ontological leap, one could
say. However, does not the posing of such ontological discontinuity run counter to that physical continuity which
seems to be the main thread of research into evolution in the field of physics and chemistry? Consideration of the
method used in the various branches of knowledge makes it possible to reconcile two points of view which would
seem irreconcilable. The sciences of observation describe and measure the multiple manifestations of life with
increasing precision and correlate them with the time line. The moment of transition into the spiritual cannot be
the object of this kind of observation, which nevertheless can discover at the experimental level a series of very
valuable signs indicating what is specific to the human being. But the experience of metaphysical knowledge, of
self-awareness and self-reflection, of moral conscience, freedom, or again, of aesthetic and religious experience,
falls within the competence of philosophical analysis and reflection while theology brings out its ultimate meaning
according to the Creator's plans.
We are called to enter eternal life
7. In conclusion, I would like to call to mind a Gospel truth which can shed a higher light on the horizon of your
research into the origins and unfolding of living matter. The Bible in fact bears an extraordinary message of life. It
gives us a wise vision of life inasmuch as it describes the loftiest forms of existence. This vision guided me in the
Encyclical which I dedicated to respect for human life, and which I called precisely Evangelium vitae.
It is significant that in St John's Gospel life refers to the divine light which Christ communicates to us. We are
called to enter into eternal life, that is to say, into the eternity of divine beatitude.
To warn us against the serious temptations threatening us, our Lord quotes the great saying of Deuteronomy:
"Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceeds from the mouth of God" (Dt 8:3, cf. Mt 4:4).
Even more, "life" is one of the most beautiful titles which the Bible attributes to God. He is the living God.
I cordially invoke an abundance of divine blessings upon you and upon all who are close to you.
From the Vatican, 22 October 1996.
*Official translation published in L'Osservatore Romano, "Weekly Edition in English," 30 October 1996.
Evolution Does Not Exclude a Creator
Pope Benedict XVI
Auronzo di Cadore, Italy, July 27, 2007
At first sight, it seems as if we do not need God or indeed, that without God we would be freer and the world
would be grander. But after a certain time, we see in our young people what happens when God disappears. As
Nietzsche said: “The great light has been extinguished, the sun has been put out.” Life is then a chance event. It
becomes a thing that I must seek to do the best I can with and use life as though it were a thing that serves my
own immediate, tangible and achievable happiness. But the big problem is that were God not to exist and were he
not also the Creator of my life, life would actually be a mere cog in evolution, nothing more; it would have no
meaning in itself. Instead, I must seek to give meaning to this component of being.
Currently, I see in Germany, but also in the United States, a somewhat fierce debate raging between so-called
“creationism” and evolutionism, presented as though they were mutually exclusive alternatives: those who believe
in the Creator would not be able to conceive of evolution, and those who instead support evolution would have to
exclude God. This antithesis is absurd because, on the one hand, there are so many scientific proofs in favor of
evolution which appears to be a reality we can see and which enriches our knowledge of life and being as such.
But on the other, the doctrine of evolution does not answer every query, especially the great philosophical
question: where does everything come from? And how did everything start which ultimately led to man? I believe
this is of the utmost importance. This is what I wanted to say in my lecture at Regensburg: that reason should be
more open, that it should indeed perceive these facts but also realize that they are not enough to explain all of
reality. They are insufficient. Our reason is broader and can also see that our reason is not basically something
irrational, a product of irrationality, but that reason, creative reason, precedes everything and we are truly the
reflection of creative reason. We were thought of and desired; thus, there is an idea that preceded me, a feeling
that preceded me, that I must discover, that I must follow, because it will at last give meaning to my life. This
seems to me to be the first point: to discover that my being is truly reasonable, it was thought of, it has meaning.
And my important mission is to discover this meaning, to live it and thereby contribute a new element to the great
cosmic harmony conceived of by the Creator. If this is true, then difficulties also become moments of growth, of
the process and progress of my very being, which has meaning from conception until the very last moment of life.
+ Spoken by Pope Benedict XVI during during a question-and-answer session with 400 priests of the dioceses of
Belluno-Feltre and Treviso, in the Church of St. Justina Martyr in Auronzo di Cadore, near Lorenzago di Cadore,
where he spent his vacation.
In the Beginning
Pope Benedict XVI
What response shall we make to this view [of evolution]? It is the affair of the natural sciences to explain how the
tree of life in particular continues to grow, and how new branches shoot out from it. This is not a matter for faith...
More reflective spirits have long been aware that there is no either-or here. We cannot say: “creation or
evolution”, inasmuch as these two things respond to two different realities. The story of the dust of the earth and
the breath of God, which we just heard, does not in fact explain how human persons come to be but rather what
they are. It explains their inmost origin and casts light on the project that they are. And, vice versa, the theory of
evolution seeks to understand and describe biological developments. But in so doing it cannot explain where the
“project” of human persons comes from, nor their inner origin, nor their particular nature. To that extent we are
faced here with two complementary - rather than mutually exclusive - realities...
We must have the audacity to say that the great projects of the living creation are not the products of chance and
error. Nor are they the products of a selective process to which divine predicates can be attributed in illogical,
unscientific, and even mythic fashion. The great projects of the living creation point to a creating Reason and
show us a creating Intelligence, and they do so more luminously and radiantly today than ever before. Thus we
can say today with a new certitude and joyousness that the human being is indeed a divine project, which only the
creating Intelligence was strong and great and audacious enough to conceive of. Human beings are not a mistake
but something willed; they are the fruit of love. They can disclose in themselves, in the bold project that they are,
the language of the creating Intelligence that speaks to them and that moves them to say: “Yes, Father, you have
+ Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger, from his book "In the Beginning: A Catholic Understanding of the Story of Creation
and the Fall" (1990)
"True contingency in the created order is not incompatible with a purposeful divine providence."
Issued by the International Theological Commission in 2004
According to the widely accepted scientific account, the universe erupted 15 billion years ago in an explosion
called the “Big Bang” and has been expanding and cooling ever since. Later there gradually emerged the
conditions necessary for the formation of atoms, still later the condensation of galaxies and stars, and about 10
billion years later the formation of planets. In our own solar system and on earth (formed about 4.5 billion years
ago), the conditions have been favorable to the emergence of life. While there is little consensus among scientists
about how the origin of this first microscopic life is to be explained, there is general agreement among them that
the first organism dwelt on this planet about 3.5 - 4 billion years ago. Since it has been demonstrated that all
living organisms on earth are genetically related, it is virtually certain that all living organisms have descended
from this first organism. Converging evidence from many studies in the physical and biological sciences furnishes
mounting support for some theory of evolution to account for the development and diversification of life on earth,
while controversy continues over the pace and mechanisms of evolution...
In freely willing to create and conserve the universe, God wills to activate and to sustain in act all those secondary
causes whose activity contributes to the unfolding of the natural order which he intends to produce. Through the
activity of natural causes, God causes to arise those conditions required for the emergence and support of living
organisms, and, furthermore, for their reproduction and differentiation. Although there is scientific debate about
the degree of purposiveness or design operative and empirically observable in these developments, they have de
facto favored the emergence and flourishing of life. Catholic theologians can see in such reasoning support for the
affirmation entailed by faith in divine creation and divine providence. In the providential design of creation, the
triune God intended not only to make a place for human beings in the universe but also, and ultimately, to make
room for them in his own Trinitarian life. Furthermore, operating as real, though secondary causes, human beings
contribute to the reshaping and transformation of the universe.
A growing body of scientific critics of neo-Darwinism point to evidence of design … that, in their view, cannot be
explained in terms of a purely contingent process and that neo-Darwinians have ignored or misinterpreted. The
nub of this currently lively disagreement involves scientific observation and generalization concerning whether the
available data support inferences of design or chance, and cannot be settled by theology. But it is important to
note that, according to the Catholic understanding of divine causality, true contingency in the created order is not
incompatible with a purposeful divine providence. Divine causality and created causality radically differ in kind and
not only in degree. Thus, even the outcome of a truly contingent natural process can nonetheless fall within God's
providential plan for creation.
+ Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger (Pope Benedict XVI) was the president of the commission and head of the
Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith at the time.
The Priority of Reason and of Rationality
The question is whether reality originated on the basis of chance and necessity and, thus, from what is irrational;
that is, whether reason, being a chance by-product of irrationality and floating in an ocean of irrationality, is
ultimately just as meaningless; or whether the principle that represents the fundamental conviction of Christian
faith and of its philosophy remains true - In principio erat Verbum - at the beginning of all things stands the
creative power of reason. Now as then, Christian faith represents the choice in favor of the priority of reason and
Now the theory of evolution, in the cases where people have tried to extend it to a philosophia universalis, has in
fact been used for an attempt at a new ethos based on evolution. Yet this evolutionary ethic that inevitably takes
as its key concept the model of selectivity, that is, the struggle for survival, the victory of the fittest, successful
adaptation, has little comfort to offer. Even when people try to make it more attractive in various ways, it
ultimately remains a bloodthirsty ethic. Here, the attempt to distill rationality out of what is itself irrational quite
visibly fails. All this is of very little use for an ethic of universal peace, of practical love of one's neighbor, and of
the necessary overcoming of oneself, which is what we need...
This dispute has to be approached objectively and with a willingness to listen, by both sides - something that has
hitherto been undertaken only to a limited extent.
+ Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger (Pope Benedict XVI), from his book "Truth and Tolerance."
There is no incompatibility between the truth of Creation and the theory of evolution
For the Church, in principle, there is no incompatibility between the truth of Creation and the scientific theory of
evolution. God could have created a world in evolution, which in itself does not take anything away from divine
causality; on the contrary, it can focus on it better as regards its wealth and potentiality... On the question of the
origin of the human being, an evolutionary process could be admitted in regard to his corporeal nature, but in the
case of the soul, because it is spiritual, a direct creative action is required on the part of God, given that what is
spiritual cannot be initiated by something that is not spiritual... The fact of being created and loved immediately
by God is the only thing that can justify, in the last instance, the dignity of the human being... The human being is
the only creature that God wanted for its own sake; he is an end in himself, and cannot be treated as a means to
reach any other end, no matter how noble it is or seems to be.
+ Father Rafael Pascual, director of the master's program in Science and Faith at the Regina Apostolorum
Pontifical University in Rome, quoted in "Magisterium on Creation and Evolution," ZENIT, December 14, 2005
In order to develop and evolve, the world must first be...
Questions concerning the relationship between science's reading of the world and the reading offered by Christian
Revelation naturally arise. My predecessors Pope Pius XII and Pope John Paul II noted that there is no opposition
between faith's understanding of Creation and the evidence of the empirical science. ... In order to develop and
evolve, the world must first be, and thus have come from nothing into being. It must be created, in other words,
by the first Being who is such by essence.
+ Pope Benedict XVI, speech to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, October 31, 2008
Two Complimentary Questions
The exact formula is Creation and evolution, because both respond to two different questions. The account of the
dust of the earth and the breath of God, does not in fact tell us how man originated. It tells us that it is man. It
speaks to us of his most profound origin, illustrates the plan that is behind him. Vice versa, the theory of evolution
tries to define and describe the biological processes. However, it does not succeed in explaining the origin of the
"project" man, to explain his interior provenance and his essence. We are faced therefore with two questions that
complement, not exclude each other.
+ Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger (Pope Benedict XVI), 1981, cited in "Magisterium on Creation and Evolution," ZENIT,
December 14, 2005
The Book of Nature
To "evolve' literally means "to unroll a scroll," that is, to read a book. The imagery of nature as a book has its
roots in Christianity and has been held dear by many scientists. Galileo saw nature as a book whose author is God
in the same way that Scripture has God as its author. It is a book whose history, whose evolution, whose "writing"
and meaning, we "read" according to the different approaches of the sciences, while all the time presupposing the
foundational presence of the author who has wished to reveal himself therein. This image also helps us to
understand that the world, far from originating out of chaos, resembles an ordered book; it is a cosmos.
+ Pope Benedict XVI, "Address of His Holiness Benedict XVI to Members of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences on
the Occasion of Their Plenary Assembly," October 31, 2008
Outside of Time
If evolution simply means that a positive thing called an ape turned very slowly into a positive thing called a man,
it is stingless for the most orthodox; for a personal God might just as well do things slowly as quickly, especially if,
like the Christian God, he were outside of time.
+ G.K. Chesterton in Orthodoxy
Evolutionists cannot drive us, because of nameless gradation in Nature, to deny the personality of God, for a
personal God might as well work by gradation as in any other way.
+ G.K. Chesterton in Lunacy and Letters
Pope Francis: Evolution Does Not Conflict with the Notion of Creation
The beginning of the world was not a work of chaos that owes its origin to another, but derives directly from a
supreme Principle who creates out of love. The Big Bang theory, which is proposed today as the origin of the
world, does not contradict the intervention of a divine creator but depends on it. Evolution in nature does not
conflict with the notion of Creation, because evolution presupposes the creation of beings who evolve.
Read the full text here ->
+ ADDRESS OF HIS HOLINESS POPE FRANCIS ON THE OCCASION OF THE INAUGURATION OF THE BUST IN
HONOUR OF POPE BENEDICT XVI, PLENARY SESSION OF THE PONTIFICAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, October 27,
Catechism of the Catholic Church
159. Faith and science: "... methodical research in all branches of knowledge, provided it is carried out in a truly
scientific manner and does not override moral laws, can never conflict with the faith, because the things of the
world and the things of faith derive from the same God. The humble and persevering investigator of the secrets of
nature is being led, as it were, by the hand of God in spite of himself, for it is God, the conserver of all things, who
made them what they are." (Vatican II GS 36:1)
283. The question about the origins of the world and of man has been the object of many scientific studies which
have splendidly enriched our knowledge of the age and dimensions of the cosmos, the development of life-forms
and the appearance of man. These discoveries invite us to even greater admiration for the greatness of the
Creator, prompting us to give him thanks for all his works and for the understanding and wisdom he gives to
scholars and researchers....
284. The great interest accorded to these studies is strongly stimulated by a question of another order, which goes
beyond the proper domain of the natural sciences. It is not only a question of knowing when and how the universe
arose physically, or when man appeared, but rather of discovering the meaning of such an origin...
Human beings, even if we postulate a process of evolution, also possess a uniqueness which cannot be fully
explained by the evolution of other open systems. Each of us has his or her own personal identity and is capable
of entering into dialogue with others and with God himself. Our capacity to reason, to develop arguments, to
be inventive, to interpret reality and to create art, along with other not yet discovered capacities, are signs of a
uniqueness which transcends the spheres of physics and biology. The sheer novelty involved in the emergence of a
personal being within a material universe presupposes a direct action of God and a particular call to life and to
relationship on the part of a “Thou” who addresses himself to another “thou”. The biblical accounts of creation
invite us to see each human being as a subject who can never be reduced to the status of an object.
+ Pope Francis, encyclical Laudato Si
Evolution and the Soul
If the human body has its origin in living material which preexists it, the spiritual soul is immediately created by
+ Pope John Paul II, Message to Pontifical Academy of Sciences, October 22, 1996
For further reading:
Cardinal Schönborn's Catechetical Lecture on Creation and Evolution
More on evolution coming soon!
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